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地理特征(zheng)

黑河市(shi)是黑龙(long)江省北(bei)部(bu)的一(yi)个(ge)边(bian)境市(shi)。位于北(bei)纬47゚42′~51°03′,东经124°45′~129°18′之间。东南(nan)和伊春市(shi)、绥化市(shi)接壤(rang),西南(nan)同齐齐哈尔(er)市(shi)毗邻,西部(bu)与(yu)(yu)内蒙古(gu)自治区隔(ge)嫩江相(xiang)(xiang)望,北(bei)部(bu)与(yu)(yu)大兴安(an)岭地(di)区相(xiang)(xiang)连,东北(bei)隔(ge)黑龙(long)江与(yu)(yu)俄(e)罗(luo)斯(si)阿穆尔(er)州相(xiang)(xiang)对,全市(shi)总(zong)面积68726平方公(gong)里。

地(di)形(xing)地(di)貌

黑河(he)(he)(he)(he)市(shi)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)处大(da)兴(xing)安(an)岭东(dong)(dong)(dong)端(duan),小兴(xing)安(an)岭北部(bu)(bu)(bu)。境内群(qun)(qun)山(shan)(shan)(shan)(shan)(shan)连绵起(qi)伏(fu),沟(gou)谷纵横,地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)势(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)西(xi)北部(bu)(bu)(bu)高,向(xiang)(xiang)东(dong)(dong)(dong)南(nan)逐渐降低。由于(yu)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)质(zhi)构造变动和(he)(he)物理风(feng)化作用,形(xing)(xing)成了(le)剥(bo)蚀地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)形(xing)(xing)、侵(qin)蚀堆(dui)积(ji)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)表、堆(dui)积(ji)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)形(xing)(xing)和(he)(he)火(huo)山(shan)(shan)(shan)(shan)(shan)岩(yan)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)形(xing)(xing),并(bing)构成低山(shan)(shan)(shan)(shan)(shan)、丘陵、火(huo)山(shan)(shan)(shan)(shan)(shan)熔岩(yan)台地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)、盆地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)、平(ping)(ping)(ping)原和(he)(he)河(he)(he)(he)(he)谷地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)貌特征。全市(shi)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)貌呈北西(xi)至(zhi)南(nan)东(dong)(dong)(dong)走(zou)向(xiang)(xiang)。由于(yu)受松(song)辽(liao)断(duan)陷(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),逊克至(zhi)乌云结(jie)雅断(duan)陷(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)和(he)(he)孙吴(wu)(wu)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)堑(qian)(qian)影响,地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)势(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)中间隆(long)起(qi),两侧坳陷(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)。中部(bu)(bu)(bu)低山(shan)(shan)(shan)(shan)(shan)丘陵区(qu)主要(yao)分布在嫩江县的(de)(de)(de)多宝山(shan)(shan)(shan)(shan)(shan)、霍(huo)龙(long)门、白云、麦海和(he)(he)爱辉区(qu)的(de)(de)(de)西(xi)峰山(shan)(shan)(shan)(shan)(shan)、新生、罕达汽、北师河(he)(he)(he)(he)、二(er)站与(yu)五大(da)连池市(shi)的(de)(de)(de)朝阳、兴(xing)安(an)乡(xiang)及孙吴(wu)(wu)县的(de)(de)(de)正阳山(shan)(shan)(shan)(shan)(shan)、清(qing)溪、辰清(qing)、群(qun)(qun)山(shan)(shan)(shan)(shan)(shan)、奋斗等乡(xiang)镇(zhen)和(he)(he)逊克县的(de)(de)(de)逊河(he)(he)(he)(he)镇(zhen)以(yi)南(nan)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)区(qu)。山(shan)(shan)(shan)(shan)(shan)区(qu)面积(ji)约44225平(ping)(ping)(ping)方(fang)公(gong)(gong)(gong)里,占(zhan)全市(shi)土(tu)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)总面积(ji)的(de)(de)(de)64.3%。为(wei)(wei)北西(xi)、南(nan)东(dong)(dong)(dong)向(xiang)(xiang),两端(duan)隆(long)起(qi)、中间凹陷(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),呈马鞍(an)形(xing)(xing)态,海拔高度(du)为(wei)(wei)300~800米(mi)。黑龙(long)江、嫩江及主要(yao)支(zhi)流地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)带(dai)(dai)(dai)山(shan)(shan)(shan)(shan)(shan)岭险峻,坡度(du)较(jiao)陡(dou),雨季易形(xing)(xing)成沟(gou)谷、崖堆(dui)和(he)(he)滑波,河(he)(he)(he)(he)流的(de)(de)(de)分水(shui)岭,一般高出河(he)(he)(he)(he)床(chuang)100~250米(mi)。山(shan)(shan)(shan)(shan)(shan)势(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)柔和(he)(he),山(shan)(shan)(shan)(shan)(shan)顶(ding)平(ping)(ping)(ping)坦(tan),可(ke)见有(you)平(ping)(ping)(ping)顶(ding)山(shan)(shan)(shan)(shan)(shan)和(he)(he)右夷平(ping)(ping)(ping)面,局部(bu)(bu)(bu)山(shan)(shan)(shan)(shan)(shan)坡有(you)倒石(shi)堆(dui),山(shan)(shan)(shan)(shan)(shan)上(shang)到处可(ke)见厚度(du)1~5米(mi)的(de)(de)(de)残坡积(ji)层,植被发育。江河(he)(he)(he)(he)密(mi)度(du)大(da),河(he)(he)(he)(he)谷弯曲,多为(wei)(wei)不对称的(de)(de)(de)V形(xing)(xing)谷,冬季可(ke)形(xing)(xing)成冰丘。沿江断(duan)陷(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)盆地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)主要(yao)分布在沿黑龙(long)潭(tan)南(nan)岸和(he)(he)逊河(he)(he)(he)(he)以(yi)北地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)带(dai)(dai)(dai)的(de)(de)(de)孙吴(wu)(wu)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)堑(qian)(qian)的(de)(de)(de)逊克至(zhi)乌云结(jie)雅断(duan)陷(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)带(dai)(dai)(dai)内,呈北西(xi)向(xiang)(xiang),狭长带(dai)(dai)(dai)状分布。长约150公(gong)(gong)(gong)里,宽约2~5公(gong)(gong)(gong)里,面积(ji)为(wei)(wei)450平(ping)(ping)(ping)方(fang)公(gong)(gong)(gong)里,占(zhan)全市(shi)土(tu)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)总面积(ji)的(de)(de)(de)0.7%,地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)势(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)平(ping)(ping)(ping)坦(tan),微向(xiang)(xiang)江岸倾伏(fu),有(you)零星山(shan)(shan)(shan)(shan)(shan)间盆地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)。南(nan)部(bu)(bu)(bu)为(wei)(wei)松(song)辽(liao)平(ping)(ping)(ping)原的(de)(de)(de)北端(duan),呈长方(fang)形(xing)(xing),面积(ji)24 051平(ping)(ping)(ping)方(fang)公(gong)(gong)(gong)里,占(zhan)全市(shi)土(tu)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)总面积(ji)的(de)(de)(de)35%:地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)势(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)较(jiao)平(ping)(ping)(ping)坦(tan),略有(you)起(qi)伏(fu),由北向(xiang)(xiang)南(nan)逐渐降低。

气候概况

黑河市属(shu)寒温(wen)带大(da)陆性季风(feng)气(qi)候(hou),跨(kua)三、四(si)、五、六(liu)四(si)个积温(wen)带。春季高温(wen)多风(feng),夏季雨热同期(qi),秋季降温(wen)急骤,冬季寒冷干燥,冬长(zhang)夏短,四(si)季分明。全市年均降水(shui)量500-550毫米,有效积温(wen)在(zai)1950-2300℃,日照时数2560-2700小时,无霜期(qi)90-120天,年平均气(qi)温(wen)-1.3-0.4℃,日最高气(qi)温(wen)38.2℃,最低气(qi)温(wen)-40℃,年平均风(feng)速(su)2.0-3.5米/秒(miao)。

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